On Clojure

March 1, 2010

Anonymous function literals and syntax-quote don’t work well together

Filed under: Uncategorized — Konrad Hinsen @ 10:43 am

Clojure has a couple of macro-like features built right into the reader, providing shorthand notation for commonly needed constructs. However, unlike real macros, which are built on a sound conceptual framework that guarantees arbitrary composability (macro calls can contain macros and expand into other macros), the different macro-like features in the reader don’t always play well together.

Consider the following piece of code:

(defmacro foo [x]
  `(map #(identity %) [~x]))

At first sight, nothing looks wrong with this, other than it doesn’t do anything useful. But any use of this macro causes an error message:

(foo [:a :b])
java.lang.Exception: Can't use qualified name as parameter: user/p1__3328

What’s going on here? The error message hints at a problem with a function argument. The only function being defined is here #(identity %), which uses a shorthand notation for function literals expanded by the reader. Let’s see what the macro call expands to:

(macroexpand-1 '(foo [:a :b]))


(clojure.core/map (fn* [user/p1__3328] (clojure.core/identity user/p1__3328)) [[:a :b]])

So here’s the problem: #(identity %) is expanded by the reader into (fn* [p1__3328] (identity p1__3328)). This is a perfectly valid function literal, but the other reader feature used here, syntax-quote, doesn’t know about function literals. It takes the expanded function literal as an arbitrary form and does namespace resolution on all symbols. This leads to a namespace-qualified symbol for a function parameter, which is not legal Clojure syntax.

Moral: use reader features sparingly, ideally one at a time. Except for syntax-quote, they only save you a couple of keystrokes, a convenience that you may end up paying a high price for in terms of debugging time.

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1 Comment »

  1. When I discovered this problem, my first idea was to find a fix and propose it for inclusion in Clojure. But I didn’t find any, so I wrote this post as a kind of public warning.

    However, Rich Hickey, Clojure’s creator, did find a fix, and applied it immediately. If you work with the master branch of Clojure’s github repository and pull in today’s changes, the code in the example will work just fine. This may be the quickest fix of something never reported as a bug!

    So what’s the trick? Clojure now appends # to the function argument symbols in expanded function literals. Syntax-quote treats such symbols specially, replacing them by guaranteed-to-be-unique generated symbols, which moreover are not namespace-qualified. Problem solved.

    Comment by khinsen — March 1, 2010 @ 3:12 pm

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